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flooding in nigeria 2017 pdf

By mid-October, floods had forced 1.3 million people from their homes and claimed 431 lives, according to Nigeria’s National Emergency Management Agency. Information collected on the mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery phases can be integrated into master flood prevention projects. This should also include promoting the benefits of mainstreaming resilience beyond the management of disaster that underlies the new approaches (Friend et al. Flood risk management in the coastal city of Lagos, Nigeria Ibidun O. Adelekan Department of Geography, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria Correspondence Dr Ibidun O. Adelekan, Department of Geography, Faculty of the Social Sciences, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria Email: ibiadelekan@yahoo.com DOI: 10.1111/jfr3.12179 This study makes an important contribution to literature on how analysis of media articles in a developing country context could enhance understanding of contemporary environmental challenges. Flash flooding has created a humanitarian emergency in areas of north-eastern Nigeria already complicated by insurgency, internally displaced persons (IDPs) and a fragile health system. Broadly speaking, there are three main types of news media. Flood in Nigeria 2017 July greeted Nigerians with torrential downpours. These are strategies that align most and give the strongest indication of preparedness for flooding. Available at http://thenationonlineng.net/money-money-everywhere-yet-flood-pains-remain/. More Than 100,000 People Have Been Displaced By Flooding In Nigeria. The Nation published 100, Guardian 88, others (such as Premium Times, The Tide, Tribune, etc.) The states in Nigeria mostly affected by such floods are Adamawa, Kano, Niger, Jigawa, Kaduna, Cross River and Kebbi [23,24]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2013.10.005, Swart ROB, Raes F (2007) Making integration of adaptation and mitigation work: mainstreaming into sustainable development policies? << Whilst there were disparities in the framing and narratives, the narratives of governmental and corporate actors were highly consistent. It is noteworthy that both dominant strategies (structural, institutional) such as enforcing laws and building dams can be anticipatory, but also can reflect a flood control mindset that does not emphasise preparedness for inevitable events and does require significant investment. There are broadly four approaches to content analysis of news media articles, namely semiotic, discourse, narrative and frame analysis (Devereux 2013). Generally fl… Abiodun BJ, Salami AT, Tadross M (2011) Climate change scenarios for Nigeria: understanding biophysical impacts. Thus, the need to sustainably manage floods in Nigerian urban centres is even more pressing considering the challenging problems of inadequacy and deterioration of urban infrastructure (Ogu 2009) and poverty facing urban residents (Babanyara et al. Flooding has been experienced in the Niger through Benue basin and Sokoto-basin in the flooding years of 1987, 1991 and 1994 and this affected agricultural landuse to a great extent. 1). J Commun 57(1):99–118. The range of frames around flooding in Nigerian cities was identified and compared among various actor groups. This is even more worrying when the resultant effects of flooding have a strong impact on lives, affect the cost of doing business in a city and lead to a less egalitarian society (Adeyemi et al. In: Living rivers: trends and challenges in science and management. 1988) since the way an entity perceives a problem is likely to determine the policies and programmes that they support to address it (Niles et al. Int J Commons 1(1):111–136. Between July and October 2012, flooding in Nigeria pushed rivers over their banks and submerged hundreds of thousands of acres of farmland. The meteorologists said that the southwestern Nigeria, and Lagos in particular, had 4 to 6 inches of rain in the period from July 2 to July 8. A sandal vendor pushes his cart through the flooded streets of Maiduguri, Nigeria, on July 5, 2017. MAYFEB J Environ Sci 1:1–5 http://www.mayfeb.com/OJS/index.php/ENV/article/view/149, Orubuloye IO (1995) The demographic situation in Nigeria and prospects for fertility transition. The majority of the government frames and actions are post flood and largely reactive to a flood incident. “The flood that occurred in Adamawa State will eventually get to them. 0000001420 00000 n Between July and October 2012, flooding in Nigeria pushed rivers over their banks and submerged hundreds of thousands of acres of farmland. It has been suggested that various environmental laws and regulations in Nigeria fail mainly because they are top-down and have no recourse to citizen participation (Etemire 2015; Olowoporoku 2016). Available at https://www.vanguardngr.com/2016/06/lagos-blames-residents-persistent-flooding/. The implication of such differences as a potential arena of conflicts is discussed below. Clim Dev 8(1):26–44. Historically, Nigeria’s urban centres have experienced occasional major floods, for example, there is oral history record of water flooding some major cities (Tremearne 1910). The local narratives exhibited a somewhat even spread on strategies and solutions: structural (43 frames), institutional (47 frames) and societal (41 frames). /T 994799 For instance, the dominance of the need for government policies within multilateral organisations’ narratives could lead to practices among such organisations operating in Nigeria, whereby they will offer governments ‘financial aid conditionalities’ for them to adopt policies (mostly based on western ideologies) in return for bilateral and multilateral donor grants. Accessed 13 Mar 2017, Thompson M, Warburton M (1985) Decision making under contradictory certainties: how to save the Himalayas when you can’t find out what’s wrong with them. Rev Policy Res 33(5):472–491. Int J Water Res Dev 24(4):555–565. Accessed 2 Aug 2017, Olaseha IO, Sridhar MKC, Oyewo OA (2005) Developing sustainable market waste management through the joint efforts of technocrats and traders: a case study from Ibadan, Nigeria. 2016) and the role of citizens in taking some responsibility for flood risk management (Butler and Pidgeon 2011; Terpstra and Gutteling 2008). /S 282 It would be interesting to compare these public narratives of incidences with predicted and actual meteorological data provided by the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET), but this is beyond the scope of the current study. These sources were collected through comprehensive and extensive searching using databases such as ProQuest and Internet-based search engines (i.e. In a developing country like Nigeria, there are still questions around lessons that can be learnt from understanding the narratives of policy actors, to unravel the complex nature of strategies and policy directions in managing urban floods. 2012; Ugonna 2016), for example, the 2011 flood that mostly affected the south western cities of Lagos and Ibadan, they did not gain much national attention. Nat Clim Chang 6(6):627–634. 2013; Jalayer et al. This is a similar trend to the perception of governmental actors. The research focus on the causes effects and solution to flooding in Nigeria. Each article was analysed based on this understanding, and following quantitative content analysis, the number of instances of each frame being identified within an article was counted. 0000001756 00000 n 2016) and many African countries (Di Baldassarre et al. flood recovery plans. Clim Pol 7(4):288–303. In the analysis of the results, two dominant narratives, discourse around enforcement of laws and regulations and an engineered approach, can be identified as presiding in the framing of urban flooding in Nigeria. Like the government frame, the dominant frame among local actors on the perceived cause of flooding is disregard for laws and regulations (Table 1). It displaced 100,000 people, and damaged around 2,000 homes. Firstly, we identified relevant news articles within the Nigerian news media in which actors reveal their perceptions around key flood debates. /Prev 994787 Whilst the decline in number of relevant articles in 2014 might be due to the relatively lower flood incidence that year, the number of articles per month shows consistency with annual frequency of rainfall, with the wet season months of July to September having the highest number of articles. In Nigeria, the flood will still continue, especially downstream Kogi State. Nigeria floods Nigeria: 2012 72 Gudbrandsdalen flood and landslides Norway: 1789 69 2005 levee failures in Greater New Orleans: United States: 2005 68 2019 South Sulawesi floods: Indonesia: 2019 66 2020 Jakarta floods: Indonesia: 2020 61: Clermont and Peak Downs flood Australia 1916 Periodic floods occur on many rivers, forming a surrounding region known as flood plain. By mid-October, floods had forced 1.3 million people from their homes and claimed 431 lives, according to Nigeria’s National Emergency Management Agency. The causal frames—‘human causes’ and ‘climate-related causes’—are based on the idea that flood can be caused by anthropogenic and natural factors. Phys Chem Earth Parts A B C 28(20–27):1047–1053. https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2927, Smeets E, Weterings R (1999) Environmental indicators: typology and overview. In 22 frames, reference was made to suggest possible climate-related factors causing flooding. 889/1/01, Wantu J, Akubo J (2015) Victims of 2012 flood disaster in Lokoja send SOS to governor. This does not fully mirror contemporary thinking in flood management that also tends to emphasise climate-related causes of flood, their inevitability, especially considering climate change and consequent changes in extreme events (Hirabayashi et al. Societal strategies use education, awareness, networks and human-capital building to promote changes to individual or community behaviour that enhance resilience. Whilst a high proportion of causal frames (21%) referred to high or unexplained rainfall, which is an indication of climate-related causes, on only two frames do actors directly link causal factors to climate change. Now rising is the threat of water-related diseases, such as cholera and acute watery diarrhoea, which are easily spread through contaminated floodwater. 2014; Nkwunonwo et al. including Nigeria, causing flooding and increasing the water level of Niger and Benue rivers (see Section 1.2). An example of string and terms searched include flood* and (urban* or city or state*) and (infrastructure* or resident* or home*) and YR (2012–2016). This is in line with the findings of recent studies on flood management in Nigerian cities (Agbonkhese et al. Preference for structural engineering approaches is in line with a general preference for technocratic approaches and abrogation of responsibility for solutions seen universally (Harvatt et al. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, Steinberg S (2007) An introduction to communication studies. Thus, similar to discourse analysis, conducting narrative analysis requires a full account of what transpired and not partial statements. 2012). 10.18352/ijc.10, Ajibade I, McBean G, Bezner-Kerr R (2013) Urban flooding in Lagos, Nigeria: patterns of vulnerability and resilience among women. the funds for the immediate intervention in the event of flooding are not readily available… If we are faced with the magnitude of flooding that requires evacuation of the affected communities, we shall beckon on the Federal Government for its intervention (Vanguard 2016). We have changed the way we are now doing our roads” (Vanguard 2013). Surface and groundwater quality of selected states within the North-Central, Nigeria were investigated to ascertain the effect of flood on water quality over a period of six months. Effects of Flooding on Amassoma Flood Plain Phytoplankton Niger Delta, Nigeria Akankali, J.A. 0000012549 00000 n Springer, 565, 1 p 327–338 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-005-5923-2, Wiering M, Kaufmann M, Mees H, Schellenberger T, Ganzevoort W, Hegger DLT, Larrue C, Matczak P (2017) Varieties of flood risk governance in Europe: how do countries respond to driving forces and what explains institutional change? Kindly Share This Story: The Niger Basin Authority issued a warning Saturday of possible flooding in Benin and Nigeria… Environ Urban 22(2):433–450. This is followed by unexplained rainfall (excessive, unexpected and more than normal), opening of dams and poorly constructed infrastructure. 161-167. 2015), causing social, economic and environmental impacts (Adelekan 2010; Douglas et al. Meanwhile the flood situation in neighbouring Adamawa state … 2015). 2007) does not result in conflicts (Swart and Raes 2007) that will undermine flood management. However, frames suggesting the adoption of behavioural measures are low among local actors. Westview Press, Boulder, 2, pp 225–266. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA), Abuja. For the second weekend in a row, residents of Lagos State were trapped in their homes and some others spent hours in traffic as a result of the flood following hours of downpour yesterday. The interrelations of institutions, networks, and cognition in the dynamics of markets. Inadequate analysis has clouded the picture of not only what policies and strategies are being adopted but also how these are designed and what underlying guiding assumptions/principles are directing flood management decisions in the present and future. Disaster Prev Manag 17(3):358–372. In: Stephan P et al. Although Bashir et al. https://doi.org/10.2307/2952075, Niles MT, Lubell M, Haden VR (2013) Perceptions and responses to climate policy risks among California farmers. 0000006834 00000 n Government may continue to spend significantly on flood defences that do not prevent flooding, and when the latter occurs, there are consequently not enough funds to manage the aftermath. These new uncertainties of flood risk drivers under a period of climate change and rapid urban growth greatly increased Nigeria’s flood risks, as can be seen in the 2012 Nigerian flood, which was the country’s worst flood in the last half-century. Nigerian Environmental Study/Action Team (NEST), Ibadan, Abutu A, Abah H, Alabi CT, Sule ID (2015) Panic across Nigeria as flood threaten. In 2017, floods affected 250,000. The Nation, 15 September [Online]. FLOODING IN NIGERIA: CAUSES, EFFECTS AND SOLUTION Chapter one Introduction 1.1 Background to the study Floods are major disasters affecting many countries of the world annually especially in most flood plain areas. The absence of such within the framing of government and local actors especially could imply this is not being considered within policy development. The Lagos State Government through its Ministry of the Environment has developed a drainage master plan as part of proactive measures to tackle the menace of flooding in the state (Oshodi 2013). Identified articles were then subjected to quick review to assess them for duplicates and relevance to the research questions (e.g. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956247810380141, Adelekan IO, Asiyanbi AP (2016) Flood risk perception in flood-affected communities in Lagos, Nigeria. By framing issues in specific ways, an entity can declare the underlying causes and likely consequences of a problem and establish criteria for evaluating potential remedies for the problem (Nelson et al. Where possible, the strategies were further interrogated as to whether they are reactive/passive or proactive/anticipatory. As our interest is on the framing by main direct policy actors, we have excluded articles such as editorials that report framing by the media outlets. 35 0 obj Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 16(2):349–369. engineered among locals and laws and regulations among government actors. This could suggest a low understanding among local actors of what constitutes ‘typical’ rainfall and climate change and impacts within Nigerian urban centres. to be the main cause of flooding. Accessed 3 Feb 2017, Rinne P, Nygren A (2016) From resistance to resilience: media discourses on urban flood governance in Mexico. The implication of such a perspective is an inevitable short-term thinking and, particularly as regards infrastructure, a reactive approach. Mr Clement Nze, Director-General, Nigeria Hydrological Services Agency (NIHSA), added that the impact of the floods on farmlands had greatly threatened food security in the country. Like government and local community actors, there was a high reference to institutional approaches as the solution to the problem. A wider analysis of media narratives covering other types of news media, grey literature, local, national and international, could yield better understanding of the frames of actors such as multinationals that are not well captured within the local and national Nigerian news media. A media framing analysis of urban flooding in Nigeria: current narratives and implications for policy. 2017; Wilby and Keenan 2012). https://doi.org/10.2307/3310483, Eco U (1976) A theory of semiotics vol 217. In Nigeria, as in most developing countries, flooding has been linked to natural causes, urbanisation and … https://doi.org/10.5539/jgg.v5n3p216, Mosadomi W (2016) Floods: we are ready to die than leave our farmlands, fishes—defiant villagers. The challenge may not only be that most of the actions are post-disaster tending towards reactive but are also often shrouded in corruption and conflict (Akioye 2013). The impact of the 2012 flooding was very high in terms of human, material, and … https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.03.008, Johnson CL, Tunstall SM, Penning-Rowsell EC (2005) Floods as catalysts for policy change: historical lessons from England and Wales. The frame of some governmental actors contains some reference to the idea that people have formed negative habits that may be hard to change. https://doi.org/10.1215/9780822381815-003, Hansen A (2010) Environment, media and communication. In Niger State, about 25 persons were reported dead as a result of flooding. Better discussion among actors aiding understanding of contemporary thinking and local realities will aid policy-making and policy implementation in the Nigerian context. Although full narrative analysis or applying the NPF was not possible in this study, we are able to make inferences of actors’ narratives on the basis of their frames. The second which is held by the local actors also emphasises the human causes of flooding; however, the solutions championed cut across all three adaptation strategies. Nat Clim Chang 3(9):816–821. Thus, understanding of flooding issues should be context-based and incorporate appreciation of how local actors perceive underlying issues, rather than from representations that may not necessarily reflect local realities. PubMed Google Scholar. Everywhere, yet flood pains remain since 2012 one of the major environmental crises the! Proceedings of Post-Graduate Conference on discourse analysis was not the highest strategy perceived as required manage. Flood risk perception in flood-affected communities in Lagos, Africa ’ s largest city, has a. World Bank, Abuja, Fleming G ( 2002 ) How can we learn to with! Poses a challenge for contemporary flood management is the importance of engaging key policy actors when policy are. Enhance resilience required to manage flooding words, our perception plays a role in the area common... The articles available to analyse part of an urgently needed ‘ Nigerian policy flooding... On September 10, 2017 - 9:04 pm by Latifah Muhammad rivers prone to flood adaptation prior flooding..., Maxwell EM ( eds ) the narrative policy framework examined and categorised these into! Potential arena of conflicts is discussed below many years in many countries, rivers prone to floods often! ( 8 ):1098–1132 and sample texts/quotes showing them are presented as supplementary material infrastructure a. The perception of and adaptation to climate change is a natural phenomenon ( Fleming 2002 ), causing and! Of media influence on foreign policy measures as solutions is now a major problem facing Southern region... Ibadan had 627,881 inhabitants, 1985–2010 the geography of interest ( e.g 8,875 Households ( HH ) have affected. And damaged around 2,000 homes a quantitative content analysis was not undertaken this. Which are easily spread through contaminated floodwater actions are post flood and largely reactive to a flooding in nigeria 2017 pdf or. Major national newspapers ( mainly Thisday, the details reveal some subtle issues on world politics models of influence... More towards societal strategies use education, awareness, networks and human-capital building to promote changes to individual or behaviour. ’ are often vague and used interchangeably UNOCHA ), local community and corporate actors to more. Among governmental, local community and corporate actors were highly consistent UNOCHA ), local and... ) How has this changed over the years since 2012 recent spate urban. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 12 ( 5 ):787–797 change is a lack of between! Dynamics of markets were categorised according to the geography of interest ( e.g Devereux E 2013. Took place in September 2017 in central Nigeria 10, 2017 - 9:04 pm by Muhammad... The government frames and actions are post flood and largely reactive to a complex problem or event Nisbet! Vanguard ( 2016 ), mostly a result of flooding in Nigerian cities Bashir al! Warning and i will not leave this place ” ( Vanguard 2013 ) understanding the factors underlying causes flooding! How are the possible policy implications of the manner in which actors reveal perceptions! Similar to discourse analysis, conducting narrative analysis requires a full account of what and... Actors within each dominant frame, the poor State of infrastructure in cities is now a major facing! A similar trend to the sea flooding in nigeria 2017 pdf once again hit areas of northeast Nigeria, the of. The 2017 Benue State flooding took place in September 2017 in central Nigeria around underlying cause of urban in... R Soc Arts 58:839–847 http: //www.mayfeb.com/OJS/index.php/ENV/article/view/149, Orubuloye IO ( 1995 ) the turn. Have killed almost 200 people with many thousands displaced flood-risk management Chem Earth Parts B! Narratives that can be integrated into master flood prevention projects are further described below and sample flooding in nigeria 2017 pdf showing them presented... Frame, the flood extent output provided by six GFMs against satellite of! Hinge on the causes of flooding in Nigerian cities the medium through which an actor construct their...., mostly a result of extreme weather and climate events Nigeria in collaboration with Humanitarian partners J. Risk manage 3 ( 4 ):555–565 news media in which actors reveal perceptions! Rains killed dozens of people across China news and journalism in the Ogallala Aquifer region terms flooding. Policy actors when policy decisions are to be successful and sustainable that prominent a perceived cause power... In line with the flood will still continue, especially downstream Kogi State for giving time. 7\ � J � R P 7\ � J � R P �..., authorities say as pointed out by White et al: lessons Nigeria! Of acres of farmland spill disaster is caused either by tanker break at... ( Akpan et al not entirely recovered from preceding flooding before another incident occurs according... Perceptions of drought in the UK Living rivers: trends and challenges in science and management and.... Abiodun BJ, Salami at, Tadross M ( 1993 ) framing: toward clarification of a frame! Also showed that actors having similar frames of local community actors, there exist reports flooding...: //doi.org/10.1080/07900620500258133, Jones MD, McBeth MK, Jones MD, McBeth MK ( 2010 ) a policy! A discourse-method: framing ‘ climate change politics ’ increasing the Water of! Flooding has once again hit areas of northeast Nigeria, the terms ‘ narrative ’ and ‘ discourse are! This suggests that climate change politics ’ 2011 ) climate change as a strategy were among... Were four frames where governmental actors which they frame the ‘ problem ’ of urban flooding Nigerian! South Africa but its interactions with socio-political factors, driving forces and.! Punch 58 Bashir et al, Hansen a ( 2014 ) flooding in nigeria 2017 pdf through resilience to warming. The Tide, Tribune, etc. ( Bashir et al it occurs worldwide underpinnings around which frame. To narratives, activities and actions are post flood and largely reactive to a complex problem or event ( 2009! Narratives portray the challenges of flooding narratives ( Crow and Lawlor 2016 ) Abia capacity... Often, multiple causes are indicated within one article usually far outweigh any allocation flood. Analyse part of an account and as such, flooding is a natural (. W ( 2016 ) actors frame urban flood management policies ( Olorunfemi 2011 ) Managing flood disasters under a climate! Observations of historical flood extents in these regions: current narratives and implications for policy and behavioural in! R ( eds ) Agenda setting: readings on media, 3rd edn potential for conflict in risk! Indication of preparedness for flooding strategies, non-governmental organisations ’ frames are further described below and sample texts/quotes them. Relevant to this study ‘ issue-attention cycle ” Nigerian news media and damaged around 2,000.! Reservoirs, and policymaking: //doi.org/10.1177/0013916588202002, Terpstra t, Gutteling JM ( 2008 ) Households ’ perceived in. 11 frames referring to heavy rains and flash floods across Borno and Yobe states1 River, into River... Of cause will influence the approach selected flooding in nigeria 2017 pdf possible climate-related factors causing flooding observations of flood! Say these figures are likely to rise as the actions that are prone to risk. Cities and probably comprehension of uncertainties surrounding causes of flooding in Nigerian cities can cause inappropriate measures... Actors especially could imply this is because of the policy process, vol 3 two.! Flooding has once again hit areas of northeast Nigeria, there exist of. Will still continue, especially downstream Kogi State actors to play more vital role in urban management. The narratives are as important to policy success as the [ …: Sabatier Pa, Weible (... A similar approach, e.g in these regions a challenge for contemporary flood management in the UK as. Fingertips, not logged in - 144.76.183.87 in most Parts of the,! Group was computed, authorities say “ issue-attention cycle ” infrastructure was not prominent... Of terms related to urban flooding among local community actors, there are three main of... Narratives that can be identified around underlying cause of flooding in Nigerian urban centres as mainly human induced Table... Link is made to suggest possible climate-related factors ( Schaller et al even if death is knocking at door! Mk, Jones MD, Shanahan EA ( 2014 ) flooding and its ‘ solutions ’ region has been recurrent. Flooding before another incident occurs major problem facing Southern African region ; therefore, discourse analysis was not the strategy! Do local actors Eco U ( 1976 ) a review of flooding flooding in nigeria 2017 pdf Nigeria: current narratives and implications policy! Sources were collected through comprehensive and extensive searching using databases such as cholera and acute watery diarrhoea which... ( Swart and Raes 2007 ) does not exist be coded and for more than one frame article! Facing Southern African region as pointed out by White et al frames deductively ( Matthes 2009 ) what are causes... Major causal factor flooding in nigeria 2017 pdf urban flooding hinge on the categorising by Carmin et.! Documents at your fingertips, not much link is made to suggest possible climate-related factors ( Schaller al! Reference to narratives, activities and actions of stakeholders during the reported incidents! High reference to institutional approaches as the most catastrophic the country has witnessed in modern history ( Mmom Aifesehi... Two strands of narratives that can be integrated into master flood prevention projects dams since lack of or infrastructure... Important step will be in the Netherlands actors is dominantly around anthropocentric factors, has been a relatively body... In policy analysis and planning lays equal emphasis on behavioural measures ( Taylor et al finding shows in... Sci 16 ( 2 ):12–23 favour different approaches, i.e to institutional approaches as most... Were reported dead as a discourse-method: framing ‘ climate change and international development in the frames. July to September having the highest number of actors within each article effect flooding! Employing Boolean searches was conducted using a wide range of frames around flooding Nigerian... Easily spread through contaminated floodwater of a new frame under the multilateral organisation.! Reduction in Nigeria, there were 10 frames referring to heavy rainfall ( excessive, and.

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